The origins of the town stretch back to the Celts and the Romans, who built a fort here to secure the Limes. The Franks brought Christianity with them. At this time Wimpfen was a Frankish royal estate and the Merovingians probably built a fort to secure this important Neckar crossing. At the turn of the first millennium the Hungarians invaded the area and caused a lot of destruction in Wimpfen.
The ruined first church from the time of the Franks was extensively rebuilt and became part of an influential monastery. In the shadow of this monastery, the town in the valley steadily developed into a market town. Wimpfen on the hill was enlarged under the Staufers into an imperial palace.
Around 1300 Wimpfen became a free imperial city, it survived the Peasants' Wars (1524-25) intact; however the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) accelerated the deterioration of the imperial city. The former imperial palace and parts of the town fortifications were used as quarries for the reconstruction. The 500 year imperial city period ended in 1802 with secularisation.
In 1817 Saline Ludwigshalle salt extraction works was founded, which gradually led to Bad Wimpfen becoming a popular bathing resort.
In 1930 the town received the attribute of 'Bad'. The slogan "Modern health spa - romantic holiday resort' epitomises the economic pillars of the town, which has a modern spa and rehabilitation centre.
A growing appreciation of the value of its medieval monuments has led to an extensive renovation of the entire old town since 1976.